By Graham Vanbergen
– Propaganda is described as “information, especially of a biased or
misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view.”
Black propaganda is “false information and material that purports to be
from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the
opposing side, typically used to vilify, embarrass, or misrepresent the
When these individual principles of communication clash to manipulate
the discourse in democracy what you get is an underlying confusion by
the population – in other words, people are not sure what to believe any
more. This was evident in both Britain’s EU referendum and the US
A prime example for this moment: Google ‘Syria False Flag’ and the
fight between mainstream and alternative media has never been hotter.
For the rest of us though – confusion.